Removing Fish Barriers
In 1969, a burning river helped draw attention to the polluted state of many United States waterways. Since then, much progress has been made to clean them up, allowing wildlife to thrive in habitats that were once dead. It’s only more recently that attention has migrated (pun intended) to fish passage problems.
According to NOAA, In the United States, more than 2 million dams and barriers block fish from migrating upstream to spawning and rearing habitat. The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) says that a little under two thousand culverts block fish passage along Washington highways. As of last year, WSDOT completed 319 fish passage projects, but there is still much to accomplish.
Read on for an example of a recent project, what services are needed to clear the way, and information about Washington, Oregon, Hawaii, and Alaska organizations that are trying to make a difference.
Example of a Fish Passage Project—Rue Creek
The Pacific Conservation District received a Washington Coastal Restoration Initiative grant from the Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office. Hart Crowser supported the Pacific Conservation District with design and development of two culvert replacements on Rue Road in Pacific County.
Fish passage and flow conveyance capacity were restored by removing the existing culverts and overlying fill, and installing a 50-foot bridge that met design requirements in the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife’s Water Crossing Design Guidelines and Washington State Department of Transportation’s Standard Specifications for Road, Bridge and Municipal Construction and Design Manual. Staff then used the stream simulation approach (one of the methods to size and design culverts that is an option in the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife’s Water Crossing Design Guidelines) to design the pattern, dimensions, and other features of the stream channel at the crossing, which would enable safe passage of juvenile and adult salmonids both upstream and downstream. An added benefit was that the replacement should prevent the creek from flooding Rue Creek Road and nearby residences.
Services Needed for Fish Passage Projects
These projects can require:
- Hydraulic engineering
- Geotechnical engineering
- Stream reach assessment
- Wetland delineation
- Permit applications to comply with Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act, and other federal, state, and local permit requirements. For the Rue Creek example above, this included preparation of a JARPA, SEPA checklist, ESA Section 7 Biological Assessment, Essential Fish Habitat assessment, and Stewardship Plan.
Action on the Local Level
In 2014, the Washington State Legislature created the Fish Passage Barrier Removal Board to develop a coordinated barrier removal strategy and provide the framework for a fish barrier grant program. Its stated mission is to “identify and expedite the removal of human-made or caused impediments to anadromous fish passage in the most efficient manner practical through the development of a coordinated approach and schedule that identifies and prioritizes the projects necessary to eliminate fish passage barriers caused by state and local roads and highways and barriers owned by private parties.”
The board has monthly meetings; agenda and meeting handouts are available on its website. It advanced its first project list to the legislature, which has been funded.
The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife has a nine-member Fish Passage Task Force, which “advises the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Fish and Wildlife Commission on matters related to fish passage. These matters include, but are not limited to, rulemaking to implement statutes, funding and special conditions for passage projects, and exemptions and waivers.” The most recent agendas and minutes are at the link above; older ones are here.
The Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office of The US Fish and Wildlife Service says that the Hawaii Fish Habitat Partnership “is composed of a diverse group of partners that have the capacity to plan and implement a technically sound statewide aquatic habitat restoration program. The partnership is committed to implementing aquatic habitat restoration in the appropriate landscape scale to achieve conservation benefits.”
They list “instream structures and barriers including stream diversions, dams, channel alteration, and road crossings” as one of eight key threats to freshwater species and habitat.
See the Pacific Islands Fish & Wildlife Office annual report for fiscal year 2017 for more information.
The Alaska Department of Fish and Game has a fish passage inventory database with information about 2,500 stream crossings. They have partnered with other organizations to complete at least 33 culvert replacements.
You Shall Pass
A blocked river isn’t as dramatic as a burning river, which makes it harder to draw attention to the plight of the remaining blocked fish. But the hope is that continued effort will forward the progress that is already being made.