Mussels Reveal Impact of Puget Sound Stormwater

Bay Mussels

Native mussels (Mytilus trossulus) like these were used to evaluate the degree of contamination in Puget Sound nearshore habitats. Photo: Brewbooks

The mission of the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) is to preserve, protect and perpetuate fish, wildlife and ecosystems while providing sustainable fish and wildlife recreational and commercial opportunities. An important initiative is evaluating the impacts to nearshore aquatic areas from stormwater discharges. Mussels sieve the water as they feed, and their tissues absorb and retain chemicals and pathogens, so the WDFW led a study using mussels as an indicator organism. They got help from so many organizations and volunteers, the list fills nearly an entire page. It includes the Snohomish County Marine Resources Council (Mike Ehlebracht, Hart Crowser geochemist, volunteers for the MRC), the Washington State Department of Ecology, other governmental agencies, native American tribes, and various non-governmental organizations. The work was funded under the new Stormwater Action Monitoring (SAM) program that is paid for by municipal stormwater permit holders.

How Was the Study Done?

As part of this study, the WDFW and volunteers placed “clean” caged mussels at over seventy locations across Puget Sound, including highly industrial areas (such as Smith Cove and Salmon Bay), urban areas like the Edmonds waterfront, and rural areas (such as the San Juan Islands). They left the caged mussels in the water for several months, then retrieved them, often in the dark, in cold and blustery weather. They tested them for stormwater-related contaminants including PAHs (produced by burning coal, fossil fuels, wood, and garbage), PCBs (used in electrical apparatuses, surface coatings, and paints; banned in the US in 1979), metals, PBDEs (used in flame retardants), DDTs (insecticides; banned in the US since 1972), and others.

And the Results…

The study showed that stormwater discharges continue to impact the nearshore aquatic environment, particularly in industrial and highly urbanized (paved) areas. PAHs and PCBs were the most ubiquitous, problematic chemicals detected in the mussels, with some of the highest concentrations found in Elliott Bay (particularly Smith Cove).

Puget Sound is a large, complex, and diverse estuary. This data will be critical in determining best management practices and providing recommendations for environmental remediation. The next round of sampling will occur this fall, with updated data available in another year or two.

Download a copy of the Stormwater Action Monitoring 2015/16 Mussel Monitoring Survey: Final Report.

Questions? Contact Mike Ehlebracht.

Placing caged mussels

Snohomish County Marine Resources Council volunteers and staff place caged mussels.

There’s a Volcano on our Project Site

Water is the life blood of any city, but its systems are not always pretty. So the two-million-gallon Forest Park Low Tank was embedded into the hillside to preserve the natural character of the area and leave unfettered views. However, this presented engineering challenges. Overcoming those challenges helped us win a 2017 Grand Award from the American Council of Engineering Companies (ACEC).

Wait—What’s Down There?

The subsurface conditions were quite unusual. Maps showed them as hard volcanic rock, but our geotechnical explorations discovered a new volcanic vent, as yet unmapped. Although of great interest to geologists, volcanic vents are rarely built on. A search of case histories did not find any information to guide the process. We embarked upon an exploration and laboratory testing program to determine if the 100-foot plus pile of cinders would support the tank. We determined that the cinders were fairly uniform across the area, resulting in uniform support for the tank. Our testing further determined the magnitude of loading the cinders could support. With this information we were able to design a foundation that did not require expensive subgrade improvements or pile foundations.

Our high-tech analyses confirmed a low-tech approach would work.

Burying Infrastructure to Preserve the Natural Beauty

In many places, water tanks are constructed within large cuts that many may view as eyesores and which permanently remove natural habitat. This has been accepted over decades as a necessary compromise to provide a robust water supply to our cities. However, this compromise does not need to be accepted. Much like the trend of burying power, communications, and other utilities that were once also overhead, the Forest Park Low Tank demonstrates that water infrastructure can be adapted similarly.

Making the Water Supply Safe

Water is a critical resource in any disaster that disrupts our infrastructure. It’s common knowledge that we cannot survive for more than three days without water. During any natural disaster, it is imperative that our water remain safe and accessible. We completed a site specific seismic hazard (SSSH) as part of our work, so the tank and appurtenant facilities will withstand the next “Big One.”

Defining Ingenuity

Sometimes ingenuity is not devising something new, but applying simple methods to solve a problem. We used performance-based results to guide changes in shoring design, and confirmed landslide mitigation approaches during construction. We avoided designing expensive foundation alternatives, installing bulletproof (and expensive) secant shoring walls, and over-analyzing slope stability prior to construction. And then we buried our best work.

The one thing to remember about this project is that we did not blow our top over an unexpected volcanic vent; instead, we persevered and worked with the design and construction teams to build a successful project…and then buried it out of “site.”Finished project

Preserving Eelgrass While Remediating Legacy Contamination

Eelgrass

What do you do when the State requires you to take action, yet prohibits that action? It’s a conundrum that takes imagination and determination.

The Setup

For over 100 years, several companies used the nearshore at the former Custom Plywood site for processing and manufacturing wood-related materials that would be used nationwide. They filled the tideland with wood, ash, bricks, metal, and sediment. They left a tug, boiler ash, scrap metal, barrels and drums, aluminum cans, scrap wood, paper, sawdust and creosote-treated pilings. As if that wasn’t enough, in 1992 a fire destroyed the mill, adding dioxin (a carcinogen) to the sediment.

The Conundrum

The Washington State Department of Ecology and Hart Crowser removed most of the contamination from the property and tidelands. Despite this, there are many acres of tidelands that are still peripherally contaminated with dioxins, much of which contains healthy eelgrass habitat. The eelgrass is not affected by the dioxin contamination; the problem is that it serves as a potential pathway for human exposure (i.e., shellfish consumption). By State mandate eelgrass must be protected. (See our earlier post about the importance of eelgrass). This means that the State requires that something be done about the contamination but not at the expense of the valuable eelgrass habitat. Our current options for dealing with dioxin contamination are to either dig up the contaminated material, or immobilize/cover it to prevent the exposure to the benthic community. Either action would potentially destroy the eelgrass. What to do?

The New Approach

The solution? Remediate the sediment in place by covering the eelgrass habitat, but not burying it. Eelgrass, unlike other species of seagrass, can only tolerate a very small level of burial. We needed to determine if the eelgrass at the former Custom Plywood site could withstand deposition of very fine layers of sand that would act as a barrier (cap) to the contamination in order to protect the benthic community and the habitat overall. Our team conducted a two-year pilot study to see whether the eelgrass could tolerate a four- or eight-inch layer of sand (applied two inches at a time), rather than a single layer application that would ordinarily be used for remediation. As part of this study, our team also investigated if adding a layer of carbon could increase the cap performance so that the cap could be as thin as possible.

Diver

Diver with eelgrass/sediment sample. Photo courtesy of Research Support Services.

The Result

The data clearly showed that eelgrass at the former Custom Plywood site can survive a four-inch cap if implemented in multiple thin layers. This means that the preferred alternative for cleaning up the residual contamination is potentially feasible. The next step is to design a large scale application using the information and data gathered from the pilot study. Eventually we hope to finally cleanup the former Custom Plywood site while leaving the existing eelgrass habitat in place and functioning.

 

Volunteering with the Children of the Night

Guatemala

Nick Galvin, Hart Crowser environmental scientist, is in Guatemala with his family to volunteer for the Xeroderma Pigmentosum Project.

A bumpy two hours from the nearest “town” of Santa Cruz Barillas, a padlocked chain stretches across the one-lane dirt road. The volunteer team’s diesel Land Cruiser rumbles to a halt. Another Guatemalan road toll. The chain falls and they continue on their way. The small village in the mountainous Huehuetenango department comes into view; the rusting corrugated-steel rooftops of the small village sprawl on the steep mountainsides. The scent of cardamom wafts through the air. Along with maize, cardamom is the local cash-crop.

The volunteer team consists of four. Milo and Dalila, who grew up there and have family in the area, plus Nick Galvin and his wife Bree. Dalila has worked as an un-trained nurse with these families for over fifteen years and Milo is the driver. They serve as translators from Spanish to Canjobal—the native Mayan dialect. Many there know only a few words of Spanish or none at all.

They park on a ridge between two deteriorating wooden school houses. The kids peer between the cracks to get a better look at the two extranjeros (foreigners). They don’t know it yet, but the road to this house will be impassable in two weeks from the incoming rains. From there they walk 15 minutes through hillsides of cardamom, meeting one of the program’s oldest children.

Cardamom fields

Bree en route through the cardamom fields.

At 16 years old, she is hardly a child. But after losing her eyesight and numerous surgeries to remove cancerous growths, she is completely dependent on her family for care. The disease has wracked her body and she suffers daily, but greets the team warmly. Her family’s house consists of two rooms: a smoky cooking area, where an open fire heats a listing metal cooktop surrounded by a couple of plastic chairs; and a sleeping area, where the entire family sleeps on uneven wooden-board beds. The floors are dirt and slope gently with the hillside. There is no electricity, toilet, or running water.

For a little over a month now, the team has been working with several families in this community suffering from Xeroderma pigmentosum or XP. XP is an unimaginably debilitating disease. Those suffering from XP are unable to repair damage from UV-radiation (i.e., the sun). This in turn leads to aggressive skin cancers and extreme photosensitivity, often at a very young age.

XP is an autosomal recessive genetic disease. Think back to freshman-year biology with Punnett Squares and Mendel’s Peas. A person suffering from the condition must have two affected alleles – one from each parent. The inheritance pattern is similar to red hair, blue eyes, or green peas, but with a much more drastic outcome. A person with only one affected allele (a portador, or carrier) can lead a normal life, with no adverse effects.

Punnett Square

Punnett Square showing regular distribution of “regular” (Y) and “affected” (y) alleles and outcome for a recessive trait – green peas. Photo courtesy of Quizlet

The majority of children in Santa Cruz Barillas are not well protected from sun exposure. Often, diagnosis occurs when the child begins to develop hyperpigmentation (darker spots) on the most exposed areas of their body; their face, neck, and arms. Many of these will become skin cancer. Shortly after, if still unprotected, the child will begin to lose his eyesight and exposure to bright light will become extremely painful.

Battling this horrific disease is beyond difficult. The only real “treatment” for those suffering from XP is an early-age diagnosis and vigilant sun protection—avoiding all exposure to sunlight. The only true way to achieve this is to stay indoors in a closed room during all daylight hours. This can have drastic psychological effects. Many houses don’t have electricity or artificial light sources, so this leads to a life sequestered inside, alone and in the dark.

In this village, generations have lived and intermarried, spreading the XP gene throughout the population. However, this is only one reason this disease is so rampant. Many still reject outside aid and chose to believe in archaic explanations; curses, spiritual intervention, or a divine form of punishment. Lack of education about the disease allows these ideas to perpetuate. Some families choose to hide (or worse, abandon) affected children. However, many do not and there is a growing contingent working to eradicate the disease.

Village center

Village center and an omnipresent Land Cruiser shuttle.

In reality, the only true method of prevention is selective reproduction. By knowing who the carriers in the community are, carriers can avoid marrying one another. This slowly dilutes and removes the affected gene from the population. Working with the community, this is a project that their organization has been heavily involved with. Through genetic testing, they have identified the families with the gene and carriers in the village. They have encouraged open communication between the carriers, families, and community, and provided scholarships for carriers to attend college outside of the area. This both elevates the family economically and provides them with an opportunity to find a partner outside of the village. They hope that this information, combined with genetic counselling and education, will allow the village to move closer to eradicating XP from their community.

Other ongoing projects focus on improving the health and quality of life of individuals living with XP. Many of the children have parasitic infections from questionable drinking water sources. Many don’t have sufficient clothing or shoes. All of the children are malnourished. A typical diet consists only of maize tortillas, beans, and the occasional vegetable or fruit. One project the team has spearheaded since they arrived is vegetable gardens. By providing the materials for gardens and classes in fertilizing, composting, and maintenance, they can provide access to a sustainable, healthier diet for the families and children.

Without a doubt, it has been an incredible experience. Staying in the village and working in the families’ homes is a sobering view into their lifestyles and the unimaginable conditions many have to endure. There is an imposing amount of work that could be done to improve the living conditions and quality of life for many of these families. For Nick and his family knowing that they were able to help—even just a small amount—is incredibly rewarding.

Due to the sensitive nature of this disease and the volunteers’ agreement with the community, they could not provide photos of the families or children.

More information about XP

Sources: Up-to-Date, Medscape

Diving In – The Promise of Social Marketing for Storm Water Education

 

Kapalua Bay on Maui

Kapalua Bay on Maui. The West Maui Kumuwai campaign uses social marketing to protect a sensitive watershed.

Individuals have a direct influence on storm water quality in their communities, and regulators strongly emphasize public education and involvement campaigns in municipal storm water management programs. But how can leaders convince residents to pick up after pets, reduce lawn pesticide use, and wash cars without getting soapy water in storm drains? And how can they discourage commercial and industrial workers from dumping contaminated liquids down storm drains behind shops, and to use drip pans to keep oil off pavement? These behavior changes would have a direct positive effect on the coastal and inland water resources we enjoy.

In traditional environmental education campaigns, the message is often delivered through newsletters, brochures, public service announcements, and social media. Some effort may be made to reach a specific audience, but the focus is producing a good quality educational tool. The hope is that having a good message and delivering it well will make people listen, learn and act.

But experience in educational campaign history indicates otherwise. Simply handing someone a pamphlet does not mean that a person will act on that information.

Enter social marketing. Social marketing integrates marketing concepts and tools from social psychology to influence behaviors that benefit individuals and communities for the greater social good.  While social marketing campaigns sometimes employ social media, the two are not the same. Social marketing can use a variety of tools to influence behaviors. First used in the public health realm, the practice focuses on a specific community. Research and surveys identify real or perceived barriers to change, and campaigns are designed to overcome those barriers and reward desired behaviors.

A great example of social marketing in action is the West Maui Kumuwai (WMK) campaign in a sensitive watershed on Maui. WMK is a non-profit that shines a spotlight on the actions of everyday people to promote ocean health. Through community surveys, WMK identified landscaping activities as a community concern relative to storm water pollution. WMK’s Reef-Friendly Landscaper campaign invites landscapers and gardeners to “Take the Pledge” by agreeing to a set of ocean-friendly landscaping activities. WMK then promotes those companies on its website and through social media, to keep these companies engaged and committed.

If you’ve heard of other successful social marketing campaigns related to storm water education, please let us know with a comment.

For more information about storm water services for municipalities, construction, and industry, contact Janice Marsters at janice.marsters@hartcrowser.com.

Anchoring the World’s Longest Floating Bridge

SR520 Bridge

Photo: WSDOT

You’re at the bottom of Lake Washington, 200 feet underwater. It’s flat as a pancake here, but the first 50 feet of soil is diatomaceous silt and clay, which is unspeakably unstable. Think microscopic glass Christmas tree ornaments with the consistency of chocolate mousse. Below that is 50 feet of very-soft clay (zero blowcount, to those in-the-know).

Try, just try, to anchor the new SR 520 Bridge in this chocolate mousse (remember, it’s a floating bridge that can’t be left to drift off to Renton or points unknown). And just for good measure, make each of the 58 anchors able to resist a horizontal load of 600 tons—four times what was needed for the old bridge.

Figure out that you’ll need three types of anchors. In areas along the side slopes, where the water is shallower and has competent soil, use a gravity anchor, but call it a box of rocks amongst your workmates.  Build it like a heavily reinforced concrete egg carton with only four compartments. Joke about the kind of eggs that would fit into a 40 foot by 40 foot by 23 foot carton.  Build them on a barge at the concrete plant in Kenmore at the north end of the lake.  Make them so heavy that that the only derrick large enough to lift one is too big to fit through the Ballard Locks. Tow the gravity anchors through the Ballard locks, though they barely fit, while the public looks on in astonishment.

Gravity anchor

Gravity Anchor on its way to the SR 520 Bridge site. Photo: Kiewit

Flood the 440-ton floating boxes with water to make them sink. Lower them to the lake-bottom and place them on a leveled-out gravel pad. Fill each of them with 1,700 tons of rock to make them heavy enough for lateral frictional resistance, or so they won’t budge.

Don’t stop there. Use a second type of anchor, a drilled shaft, along the shoreline where the lake is shallow enough that the box of rocks would have caused havoc as a navigational hazard. Make them ten feet in diameter and 100 feet tall, not as tall as the original Godzilla, but close enough.

Drilled Shaft

Ten-story-deep drilled shaft anchor. Image: KPFF Consulting Engineers

Then, use fluke anchors, the most technically challenging anchor, for the majority of the project. Make these fluke anchors from reinforced concrete plates three feet by 35 feet wide by 26 feet tall. Cast a steel tetrapod into the side so that the anchor cables can be attached to the I-bar at the end of the tetrapod. Explain that a “tetrapod” is a four-sided shape with triangular faces (not to be confused with a four-limbed vertebrate).

Fluke Anchor

Fluke anchor being jetted into the bottom of Lake Washington. Image: KPFF Consulting Engineers

Place the fluke anchors in a steel frame equipped with water jet tubes to drive them into the mud. Because the mud is chocolate mousse, place mounds of rock above and beside the fluke anchors. And then more rock. And then more rock. Good, that’s enough.

Now, celebrate. The Washington State Department of Transportation’s grand opening of the longest floating bridge in the world will be April 2 and 3, 2016. You can run, bike, or possibly meander across the bridge. Hopefully there will be food. You’re hungry after all that work.

Hart Crowser was the geotechnical engineer-of-record for the anchors for the new SR 520 Bridge. The design-build contractor was a joint venture of Kiewit/General/Manson. The structural engineer was KPFF Consulting Engineers.

Need more detail? Read the technical paper Geotechnical Design: Deep Water Pontoon Mooring Anchors or contact Garry Horvitz, PE, LEG, at garry.horvitz@hartcrowser.com

Fluke anchors on barge

Fluke anchors on barge.

Why an Earthquake Warning System Should Not Be a Priority In The Pacific Northwest

Earthquake_damage_Cadillac_Hotel,_2001_SmallerThe newest and hottest topics when it comes to disaster discussions in Oregon and Washington, as well as on the national level, are an earthquake warning system and earthquake prediction possibilities. They are the new obsession that has come on the heels of the New Yorker articles this summer. While we don’t object to advancing both of these methods to better warn of impending quakes and hopefully save lives, we do think that the discussion is premature, especially here in the northwest.

The first reason is that an earthquake warning system like that in Japan has to be implemented only with a comprehensive, aggressive, and continuous public education program. Without a full understanding of what you should do when your phone emits an ear piercing shriek warning of impending shaking, we risk even greater panic and possibly more casualties. Running out of buildings with unreinforced masonry or weak facades just before the shaking could put people at more risk of falling hazards outside of the buildings. It could also cause major traffic hazards as drivers try desperately to get across or get off bridges and overpasses. Unless we develop a much better awareness of what the public should do when they receive the warning, it may cause more problems than it solves.

But the real issue is that these technologies are acting as the bright shiny objects that are distracting all of us, from the public to the president, from the real issue: our infrastructure is in dire need of upgrades not only to prevent casualties, but also to encourage long term recovery.  We doubt 30 seconds of warning will seem as beneficial when the public doesn’t have wastewater for one to three years.  Further, a warning system that stops surgery or an elevator is not as important as making sure that the hospital or building itself is designed to withstand shaking. Especially in Oregon and Washington, all of our energy and funds need to be focused first on comprehensive and intelligent infrastructure improvements that increase our community resilience. And that needs to happen as quickly as possible. We implore you not to follow the flashing light! Urge our government to focus on the real issues, and encourage your colleagues and neighbors to personally prepare.

For more information contact Allison Pyrch at (360) 816-7398 or Allison.pyrch@hartcrowser.com

Shaken and Stirred: Northwest Earthquake and Tsunami

Washington 9.0 earthquake--Are you ready? Oregon 9.0 Earthquake--Are you ready?Suddenly the Pacific Northwest is on the national stage for its earthquake and tsunami vulnerability, thanks to a New Yorker article. “The Really Big One,” by Kathryn Schulz, has triggered attention from dozens of local papers and news sites. Yet even before the New Yorker shook the Northwest (pun intended), Oregon Public Broadcasting had been featuring Hart Crowser engineer Allison Pyrch in its “Unprepared” series, to alert the region to the impending disaster in hopes that we will get prepared.

Also, Allison recently gave a presentation for the Lake Oswego Sustainability Network: “Surviving a 9.0, Lessons Learned from Japan and Beyond.” If you are involved in emergency management or just plain interested in massive disasters and their aftermaths, settle in for some powerful visuals and easy-to-follow explanations about earthquakes in Japan and Chile, how the 9.0 earthquake and tsunami will happen in the Pacific Northwest, and what you can to do to be resilient.

Watch the whole “Surviving a 9.0” video to get unusual insight into what’s ahead, or if you’re pressed for time, skip to one of these minute points:

  • 9:00 Jan Castle introduces Allison Pyrch 10:56 Allison Pyrch’s presentation begins with how the Pacific Northwest 9.0 earthquake will happen
  • 14:25 Comparing the Japan and Chile quakes “It didn’t stop shaking for a day”
  • 21:45 Fire damage/natural gas 22:30 Water, wastewater, and electrical systems; liquid fuel; natural gas
  • 24:25 Lifelines/infrastructure/airports “PDX will not be up and running”
  • 28:35 Port damage/economics
  • 31:45 How prepared is the Pacific Northwest? When will it happen? “We are 9 ½ months pregnant”
  • 35:00 What will it look like?
  • 37:32 What you can do
  • 40:30 What businesses can do
  • 42:11 Can you be sustainable without being resilient?
  • 43:33 What about a resiliency rating system similar to LEED?
  • 53:30 Will utilities, transportation, hospitals be useable after the 9.0? “We’re toast”
  • 1:01:30 End of Allison’s presentation; additional information from Jan Castle on how to prepare
  • 1:19:19 How sustainability measures in your home lead to resiliency

Oregon Public Broadcasting’s Resiliency Blitz Starts January 26

Allison Pyrch of Hart Crowser

Allison Pyrch at a base isolated hospital near Ishinomaki, Japan, talking to Ed Jahn, OPB Producer. With Jay Wilson, Clackamas County Emergency Manager (left) and the hospital engineer. Listen January 26-28 on OPB radio’s Morning Edition between 7 and 9 am and at www.OPBnews.org.

For the last year, Allison Pyrch, a geotechnical engineer with Hart Crowser in Portland, Oregon has been the American Society of Civil Engineers representative to support Oregon Public Broadcasting in the preparation of a 2015 “media blitz” highlighting Oregon’s dire need for improved seismic resiliency.

Allison, the section secretary and a member of the ASCE Technical Committee on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering, travelled to Japan with the OPB Field Guide crew in September to highlight the damage and engineering successes that were observed after the 2011 subduction zone earthquake and tsunami.

The Japan footage, as well as footage from within Oregon, will be used throughout the year to bring awareness to the need for seismic resiliency here at home. The work will culminate with an hour-long documentary in October 2015.

The first segment of coverage will air January 26-28 on OPB radio’s morning Edition between 7 and 9 am can be found now on the OPB website here and here. The series will discuss critical structures in tsunami zones. The January 28th segment will feature Allison and cover how Japan constructs base isolated hospitals that are ready for business immediately after a major seismic event. Tune in and listen!

Digital Coast Act Introduced to Aid Communities with Coastal Planning and Disaster Response

Digital Coast Website Snapshot

Those of you involved with GIS or coastal mapping may be familiar with NOAA’s Digital Coast Project, which consists of a free, online database of the most up-to-date coastal data throughout the U.S. Established in 2007, this project not only provides essential data, but also the tools and training coastal communities need to respond to emergencies and make sound planning decisions. Due, in part, to its collaborative nature and broad datasets ranging from land use to aquatic habitat to socioeconomics, the Digital Coast has quickly become one of the most widely used management resources in the coastal management community.

Accurate and up-to-date coastal information is becoming increasingly important in the U.S. Coastal watershed counties were home to nearly 164 million Americans in 2010, approximately 52% of the U.S. population. This number is expected to increase by more than 15 million by 2020. These counties also contribute over 58% ($8.3 trillion) of our gross domestic product. As vital as our nation’s coasts are to the local and national economy, they are equally as vulnerable. In the Pacific Northwest, growing demand for coastal development, combined with an increase in natural hazards such as sea-level rise, extreme weather, and flooding events, will continue to exert significant pressures on coastal communities. Storm damage from coastal flooding and erosion result in response costs, lost productivity, and lowered economic productivity that we all pay for one way or another. The Digital Coast Program provides accurate data and integrated information that enables coastal communities to adapt to changing environmental conditions and protect their local economies.

In September 2014, U.S. Senator Tammy Baldwin, with support from Senator Maria Cantwell (WA) and others, introduced the Digital Coast Act of 2014. This legislation authorizes further development of the Digital Coast Project by increasing access to uniform, up-to-date data, identifying data gaps, and ensuring that coastal communities get the data they need to respond to emergencies, plan for economic development, and protect shoreline resources. The bill would provide funding for a national mapping effort of coastal waters that includes improved data on coastal elevations, land use/land cover, structures, habitat data, and aerial imagery, all of which could be of great benefit to Puget Sound and the Pacific Northwest. This legislation has been assigned to a congressional committee but it is unclear if and when it will be enacted. However, many coastal planners and scientists view the Digital Coast Act as critical legislation that is needed to help ensure the protection of coastal resources and communities in the Pacific Northwest and throughout the nation.

More information on NOAA’s Digital Coast Project or pending legislation to enact the Digital Coast Act